Showing posts from 2008

Historic Role of the Bandar Seri Begawan Wharf

I was reading the letters in Borneo Bulletin about the defence of the Customs Building being listed as a historical building. The building is fairly new (1950s) but then most buildings in Brunei were built in the 1950s. Most of the earlier ones were obliterated by the Allied Forces when trying to capture the town from the Japanese. I wrote about the Bandar Seri Begawan wharf in Brunei Times more than one and half year ago so I thought I will bring up that article:-

There are two important reasons for the rise of Brunei in the past. One is its location along the northern coast of Borneo which exposed us to the monsoon winds blowing across the South China Sea.

Traders from China sailed towards the Malay Archipelago during the northeast monsoon (November to April), and returned to China during the southwest monsoon (May to October). These monsoon seasons determined the traders’ sailing patterns.

Brunei became a meeting place for international traders to exchange spices, silk, textiles, and…

Fiscal Monetary Review Q4 2007

The other day, I got a copy of the Fiscal Monetary Review, a publication done by the Ministry of Finance. When I was at MOF, I was part of the process and we have always tried to do it probably with a quarter or two quarter lag. At times we failed. I have not seen a copy since I left MOF in January and I was wondering what happen to it. Finally this one showed up.

Published in November 2008 for Quarter 4 2007 - four quarters out. Nevertheless it is here. The data is out of date now given that the oil prices have completely crashed. Q4 of 2007 was still showing positive results especially on the revenue side. If you can see the table above, you can see the surpluses piling up but I am sure with Q4 of 2008 and probably the entire 2009, those surpluses will be going back in to cover the shortages of revenues expected to cover expenses. Click on the photo above if want to read the data about expenses and revenues over the last 10 quarters.

I have scanned the entire 16 page document and I ca…

Sultans of Brunei Series - Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II

ON THE 26 of April 1804, Sultan Muhammad Tajuddin abdicated from the throne to his second son, Pengiran Muda Tengah Muhammad Jamalul Alam who became the first Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam. His eldest son, Pengiran Muda Besar Saiful Rijal had passed away much earlier.

However Sultan Muhammd Jamalul Alam I died just seven months after he ascended the throne, on 10 November 1804. Pengiran Muda Omar Ali Saifuddin was the son of Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam I and Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Puteri Nur Alam. When his father died in 1804, he was still a minor when he became Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II.

Therefore his grandfather Paduka Seri Begawan Sultan Muhammad Tajuddin ascended the throne for the second time. Due to his advanced age, Sultan Muhammad Tajuddin wanted his son Pengiran Anak Muhammad Yusof to be the Acting Sultan but his son refused stating that the throne was rightfully owned by Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II even though he was not yet coronated.

Sultan Muhammd Tajudin then offere…


Merry Xmas to whoever is celebrating it today. I remembered when I was studying in England in the mid 1980s that Xmas was the time we had to stock up for food. The area I was staying in (Stoke City, Staffordshire) virtually shut down for that Xmas week and shops did not open until after the new year. It was cold and freezing and I remembered being bored to death and spent my time watching all the Xmas shows on the then only four British TV channels (BBC1, BBC2, ITV and Channel 4). I did celebrate Xmas once with a British family who invited me to their Xmas dinner. It was certainly enjoyable.

I remembered when I was in England I was surprised to find out that Christmas was once forbidden by an Act of Parliament in 1644; the day was to be a fast and a market day; shops were compelled to be open; plum puddings and mince pies condemned as heathen. The conservatives resisted; at Canterbury blood was shed; but after the Restoration, dissenters continued to call Yuletide "Fooltide".…

Brunei Statistical Yearbook 2007

Yesterday I focused on one statistics book produced by the Economic Planning and Development Department (JPKE) but I did mention another book. This is the other statistics book, the Brunei Darussalam Statistical Yearbook 2007. This is the 31st series of this book.

This book contained every statistics that you needed to know about Brunei - population, labour force, external trade, finance, education and national accounts. It also provides breakdown in our agriculture, forestry and fishery industries, mining, electricity, water and gas, transportation sector, health and a number of miscellaneous data.

Did you know that our national library system only has 516,861 books by the end of 2007? I remembered my old alma mater in US had about 12 million so 1/2 a million sounds like not much. We certainly have not been spending money on books for the library. The amount of rainfall recorded in Brunei at a number of agricultural stations showed that in 2007, almost everyone showed a marked increase…

The 5 Year Itch

I was back at work yesterday after a 3 week leave. I think I took too a long a leave and it took a while for the brain to move to its normal speed. The last time I took anything longer than a week was to go to Scotland for my second Masters degree convocation and that was back in 2002.

Anyway, I saw two interesting books on my table courtesy of my good friend, the head honcho of JPKE, the Brunei Annual Statistics Book 2007 and the Brunei Vital Statistics 2003-2007. The Annual Statistics Book is as always contained all the statistics that you ever wanted to know about Brunei. But the Vital Statistics had some interesting statistics.

The Vital Statistics provides time series data for 6 years of the live births, deaths, marriages and divorces in Brunei. If you are involved in planning and needed these statistics, this book is indeed vital (my pun!) for you to get.

I read through it and I was struck by the interesting data provided in the marriages and divorces statistics. Did you know that …

Sultans of Brunei Series - Sultan Abdul Momin

[For my Golden Legacy column on Brunei Times, I am currently writing about the Sultans of Brunei. This is what I wrote about Sultan Abdul Momin, Brunei's 25th Sultan last week on BT.]

On the 5th Safar 1269 (November 18, 1852), Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II passed away. On his death, to decide who the heir to the throne shall be, the Keris Si Naga (Dragon Dagger) was first passed to Pengiran Anak Muhammad Tajuddin ibnu Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam I because it was felt generally that he was the best qualified to be the next Sultan. However he turned it down.

The next to be offered the Dragon Dagger was Pengiran Anak Abdul Momin ibnu Pengiran Shabandar Pengiran Anak Haji Abdul Wahab ibnu Sultan Omar Saifuddin I. He was also the son-in-law of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II.

Pengiran Anak Muhammad Tajuddin thought that by rejecting the dagger, it might be offered to his son, Pengiran Muda Mohamad Jamalul Alam who was the son-in-law of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuiddin II and is more senior as his …

Brunei $1 1967

Over the last two years, I have slowly been collecting all the Brunei currency notes. We do not have that many issues as Brunei has only been issuing its currency notes since 1967. I did not realise how difficult it was. This particular $1 note with Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin III is not that easy to get. I do have more than a dozen with me but some of them are paid not at the price you would have imagined. This $1 note if you go to the bank and change it for a new one, you will get exactly $1. Guess how much this is currently sold on ebay?

If your answer is about $10, you are far off. On ebay, an uncirculated $1 note is currently being offered at US$90 ($135 our money). This $1 note is worth 135 times what it used to be. So if you have a lot of these notes, keep them or sell them for around US$90 each.

Even the 1 cent (copper red colour) which you despised and try to get rid off all the time, is no longer available. All the 1 cents you get today is the new 1 cent (zinc copper yellow colo…

After Birth

Someone raised the topic about placentas, especially what happens to it after a birth has taken place. I wrote about this 2 years ago which if you are interested you can still access here and you can also read the 17 comments following that entry.

On this subject matter, I would like to highlight the opinion of my colleague who is my counterpart at PMO who kindly emailed me then about the whole placenta thing from the Islamic perspective. I highlighted then among his titles, he was formerly a Kadhi and is unique in holding double first degrees, a BA from Al-Azhar University as well as an LLB from International Islamic University. I think this opinion is a more or less definitive one. For those searching for a copy of the Mufti's fatwa - there is a 1985 fatwa regarding this matter. My colleague's email is as follows:-



I shared your concern regarding the disposal of tebuni. Berikut dihuraikan mengenei pengurusannya menurut Islam sebagaimana dalam fatwa;


Masjid Hassanal Bolkiah, Tutong

I have always been a bit peeved that during the aerial bombing by Allied Forces in the Second World War, our town mosque then known as Masjid Pekan Brunei or Masjid Marbut Pak Tunggal was bombed to smitherens. By the end of the War, Brunei's capital did not have a mosque and only a temporary Masjid Kajang was built until SOAS Mosque was completed in 1958.

The aerial bombing by the Allied Forces not just destroyed Pekan Brunei's mosque but also the mosque in Tutong. The Tutong mosque then was built along the banks of the Tutong River. This Tutong Mosque was in fact the third mosque built for Tutong Town. This particular mosque was built in 1928.

Two earlier mosques were built in Tutong. The first was in 1922 said to be located at the site of shops no 3 and 4 of the Tutong's first shophouses block. But that was soon abandoned and a second mosque was built right in front of the river (now the site is used for taxi and bus stand). The third was of course the one that was bombed …

The ASEAN Charter

Two days ago, our RTB news showed our Foreign Affairs and Trade Minister, HRH Prince Mohamed signing the ASEAN Charter with all the other ASEAN Foreign Ministers. Many among us may not realise how historic that occasion is. I thought I will spend a bit of time today on what does the ASEAN Charter mean for us in simple language.

Despite ASEAN being existence for more than 41 years, what many people did not realise before this, is that before the signing of the Charter, ASEAN was nothing more than a talk shop, forging agreements through consensus and steering away from confrontation.

This Charter now gives legal identity to ASEAN for international negotiations and transactions. This turns ASEAN more like the European Union and similar to the EU as a legal entity will allow ASEAN to become a single market - a single market for our 500 million+ people is one of the key goals stated in the charter. If ASEAN does become a single market, it brings a set of benefits and interesting situations …

Sultans of Brunei Series II - Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam II

[For my Golden Legacy column on Brunei Times, I am currently writing about the Sultans of Brunei. This is what I wrote about Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam II, Brunei's 26th Sultan two weeks ago on BT.]

HIS Royal Highness Sultan Muhammad Jamalul Alam II was the third son of Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam. When his father Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam died in 1906, he became the Sultan as his two elder brothers had passed away a few years earlier.

In 1889, Sultan Hashim first appointed his eldest son Pengiran Muda Besar Omar Ali Saifuddin as the Acting Sultan. This was to give him the experience needed when he took over the throne.

Sultan Hashim's second son, Pengiran Muda Tengah, decided to leave Brunei and stayed at first in Sabah and later at Tawi-Tawi in the Philippines.

In 1903, there was a smallpox outbreak in Brunei. At that time, Brunei did not have any modern medical facility and any medical requirements had to be brought in from Labuan. Unfortunately during that smallpox outbreak,…

Sultans of Brunei Series I - Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin

[For my Golden Legacy column on Brunei Times, I am currently writing about the Sultans of Brunei. This is what I wrote about Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin, Brunei's 27th Sultan three weeks ago on BT.]

HIS Royal Highness Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin Akhazul Khairi Waddien ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Mohammad Jamalul Alam II was born at the palace in Pekan Brunei on 4th June 1913. His father His Royal Highness Sultan Mohammad Jamalul Alam II was coronated the Sultan of Brunei in 1918 even though his father Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam died in 1906. During that time, Brunei was ruled by a Council of Regency until Sultan Mohammad Jamalul Alam was coronated as the Sultan of Brunei in 1918.

His Royal Highness Sultan Mohammad Jamalul Alam II had encouraged the teaching and learning of Islam in Brunei. He also built a mosque in the capital even though during his reign, Brunei's revenue from oil had not yet materialised.

The mosque was popularly known as Masjid Marbut Pak Tunggal but it was officially known as …

Australians in Brunei Part 2

The Australians were here in Brunei yesterday to commemorate the monument where they landed at Muara Beach (codename Green Beach) in 10th June 1945. It was probably one of the last battles of WWII and some questioned whether all these were necessary as the Japanese were already on the verge of collapse. But for whatever it was, the Australians did clear Brunei and liberated Brunei from the Japanese then. Here are a few photos which I borrowed from the Australians Veteran Affairs. The first is the maritime landing at Muara Beach, the second is the march from Muara to Brunei town (that path was what Jalan Muara looked like in 1945) and the last is the field emergency centre at Muara Beach.

The Bruneian Haj

Alhamdulillah, by the time you read this, Brunei haj pilgrims this year would have completed their tasks, everyone would have performed the full obligations of the hajj and will soon be preparing to return home to Brunei.

What most people don't know is that prior to 1954, to go on haj means that you have to be assisted by the British Resident Office. Prior to the world war, going on haj is a more laissez faire affair. You go on your own and make all the arrangements yourself and it was a very difficult trip. My father in law who went in 1930s, I was told spent at least 4 to 5 months away just to go on the hajj and it wasn't a luxury trip like today. He spent more than a month just travelling on board ships (not just one - you probably changed ships in Singapore and other ports). Going on haj then means literally you wouldn't whether you would be coming back. It was such an ordeal that even when a pilgrim died on board the ship, his body would be lowered into the sea for a s…

RIPAS and the Cafetaria

My minister was hospitalised yesterday and we visited him. I did not realise the hospital is very busy around lunchtime. There were many people walking about and I have to admit it has been a while since I last visited the hospital. I always have this impression that hospitals should be quiet but I guess I was wrong.

The cafetaria was interesting. There were many people there and the cooperative running it is certainly making lots and lots of money. One of the more interesting observations is that a number of customers who has these little bandages on their arms (presumably after having their blood samples taken) are really having a feast. Most people who have their blood samples have to fast the night before and after having their blood taken are of course anxious to break their fast.

I used to be one of these people. It's interesting that - one is the fasting bit, but the other is that, it is like an exam, a few days before your blood samples is taken, you behave like an angel so…

Australians in Brunei

As a historian, I sometimes wonder what if... During the second world war, the British virtually left Brunei, or rather the entire Southeast Asia defencelss. Strategically it is a good decision, mounting their might against the Germans in Europe. At the end of the war, it was not the British who came. The so-called Allied Forces which liberated Brunei from the Japanese were Australians. TS Monks who was in fact a Brit came together with the Australians, wrote about the end of the war in his book 'Brunei Days'.

Where the Australians landed on Muara Beach, a memorial has been built to dedicate to the men who served there. So, this coming Saturday, there will be a dedication to the memorial. I also found this on an Australian news website about a World War II Australian veteran who arrived in Brunei:-

"World War II veteran Rex Kawelmacher recalls there were no five-star hotels when he was last in Brunei.

After more than 60 years the Shellharbour resident will return to Brunei …

Selamat Hari Raya Haji

Two of the most important Islamic holidays of the year are Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha. Brunei as the rest of the world is celebrating Hari Raya Haji or Hari Raya Korban or Eid ul Adha. Do you know the history behind it?

We know Hari Raya Eid ul Fitr or Hari Raya Aidil Fitri as we say in Brunei marks the end of the long fasting month of Ramadan, Eid-ul-Adha marks the end of Hajj, the sacred pilgrimage to the holy city Mecca. Also popularly known as the Festival of Sacrifice, this Muslim holiday Eid-ul-Adha commemorates Nabi Ibrahim’s unselfish act of sacrificing his own son Nabi Ismail to Allah.

The history behind Eid-ul-Adha follows the story of the faithful Nabi Ibrahim, who was instructed by Allah in a dream to raise the foundations of Kaabah, a black stone, the most sacred Muslim shrine in Mecca. Immediately responding to Allah's command, Nabi Ibrahim set off for Mecca along with his wife and son, Nabi Ismail. At that time, Mecca was a desolate and barren desert and Nabi Ibrahi…

Rainforest Kidzworld

My son wanted to go to the Singapore Zoo. My better half and I were quite reluctant as we have been there quite a number of times already. The white tiger attack on one of the zookeepers too We have seen the day version and the night version (night safari) over the last few years. But on Thursday, I was reading the newspaper and saw the Singapore Zoo's advertisement advertising their latest exhibit the "Rainforest Kidzworld".

So off we went yesterday morning and I think we were not the only ones who read that advert. Half of Singapore was there and the queue to get the entrance tickets when we got there was about three hundred meters long. It was that long and it took us quite a while just to get to the end of it. But the good thing is that even though the queue was long, it moved very fast. The zoo had six counters and it took us around 25 minutes to get the tickets. Even then when we were queueing, the assistants took our ticket preferences and by the time we got to th…


Yesterday was just spend the day away during the holiday kind of thing. We did not have any specific plan but just to jalan-jalan makan angin if I may use the phrase. We found ourselves at an old place in Singapore, the Plaza Singapura. Plaza Singapura is one of the oldest shopping centre in Singapore. I remembered the place when I was already here for my secondary education at Telok Kurau in 1976. Yet, in 1976, Plaza Singapura was already well established. It must be close to 40 years old.

From what I can see yesterday is that what's amazing for a building that's 40 years old is that it has kept to pace with its competitors along Orchard Road. I can't remember a building in Brunei which has managed to keep pace with its competitors. Most of our buildings, once they have lost to other competitors, generally began a downward spiral to oblivion.

Anyway, one of the ways that Plaza Singapura has kept up to date was by having a 10 cinemas cineplex run by Golden Village. We checke…

The Beribi Roundabout

My favourite and the number ONE Brunei cartoonist, Cuboiart - his latest cartoon is about the Beribi Roundabout. A roundabout, many people I know tried to avoid but unfortunately it is still the best way to get around the area. I tried to avoid it whenever I can. For instance going to Kiulap from Batu Satu, I would rather go through the small streets of RIPAS and Kiarong and emerging at the traffic lights near Jame'. Even to the point, I would rather go up to RIPAS and going back down the other way just to avoid the Beribi roundabout.

However lately I noticed that it's not that bad using the roundabout. People are more careful and do use the right lanes. Our ministry's pet peeve is that there is one lane too many especially the one joining the road to the pasar area. So cars emerging from the Beribi area have to be contend with cars going to the pasar area as well as cars going down the highway towards Berakas.

Sometimes I wonder whether all those adverts issued by the Road …

Shopping in Singapore?

I don't have to tell you where I am together with my family for the next few days. We arrived yesterday afternoon and had been hitting the road since then. Other than a few Bruneians who are in Singapore for treatment, not that many Bruneians are making Singapore a holiday target.

Yesterday was interesting. We flew on SIA flight, it was a Boeing 777 which means a passenger load of 280 to 320 and it was a full flight. Yet when we landed at Changi Airport, there was only my family and a handful of other passengers who were waiting for our baggage. Where did the other passengers go? I know of a Darussalam tour group to Beijing and a group of Pakistanis going back to Karachi and Lahore as I saw the connecting flight signs as we exited. I guess, many Bruneians used SIA but not to go to Singapore.

What's the point? You see, I came from a different era. I remembered a time in the 1970s and 1980s, Bruneians flocked to Singapore like crazy. You bake cakes - you come to Singapore. Why? B…

Bangar and Old Text Book

When we were in Temburong for our ministry's away day, I took sometime off to visit Bangar. I was not allowed to take part in OBBD's activities because of my rather too heavy frame and other associated medical problems. So I missed out on the rafting and the intentional overturning of the rafting where every passenger ended up in the water. I certainly missed not being thrown in the cold water of the Temburong River.... not!

Anyway, while all my colleagues were having 'fun' in the water, I went to Bangar with Zainal Tinggal, the Mind Over Matter consultant. Even though I have been to Temburong a few times this year, I have never actually seen or visited the shops in Bangar. I managed to drop in to the TAP branch at Bangar. I remembered when I was the Managing Director for TAP, the management team would visit the Bangar branch once every month. The TAP Branch is a two man operation and the visit would last something like 10 minutes. This branch knows all the employers in…

Brunei Economic Bulletin September 2008

The Economic Planning and Development Department (JPKE) issued two publications recently. One I have already highlighted which was the handbook. The other was the first issue of Volume 6 of the Brunei Economic Bulletin. This was published in September and released last month.

I wanted to put up the link of the pdf of the bulletin but surprisingly JPKE only had the link to the May issue. I guess if you want the pdf copy, you would have to wait. If someone from JPKE is reading this, please put up the latest pdf. You got the old pdf there. So there, hopefully by the time you get to reading this, JPKE would have put up the latest bulletin on line.

The report only covers Quarter 1 of 2008 so it is slightly out of date and has not captured the latest economic crisis that the world is facing. But then the data was already showing signs of trouble. Economic growth for the Q1 was already down 4.9% year on year. Total loan increased by 29.5% but the size of NPL (non performing loans) at least was…

Love Story Movies

I was watching Ayat-Ayat Cinta last night with my better half. She had wanted to watch it at a cinema but we did not have the time. So we decided to get the DVD and watch it at home. I knew it was a love story and I am not always crazy about love stories but you can get hooked and I did with this one. This is the second of two love movies that I got hooked on.

The other one I got hooked on was "PS I Love You". It was the fourth consecutive movies that I watched while flying from Singapore to Dubai on the way to Iran and I did not finish the movie when the plane landed. That was the first time, I watched a movie until the plane docked. I was sitting in the Business Class and the stewards let me watched the movie until the plane stopped. On the way back to Singapore, I completed it.

"PS I Love you" is a very modern western movie. It is about a couple, the lady smart and beautiful and married to an impetuous Irishman. The husband was the centre of her life and when he d…

Ask Bruneiresources

I was on the way from the Trandie Marina Resort, Batang Duri Temburong where we held our ministry's leadership and strategic planning session, when the sms from Cuboiart came through my phone. In Trandie Marina, you cannot receive any call as there was no DST signal. We had to drive a few miles away before you can get any mobile phone reception.

Anyway, on the way to the mosque for the Friday prayer, I had a few sms which arrived the moment my phone was able to receive messages. One of them was Cuboiart's telling me that the cartoon was now in print in Borneo Bulletin. I knew about the cartoon much earlier as I asked Cuboiart whether he can draw me a cartoon which I wanted to keep for myself about BR. When he sent me the cartoon, I laughed my head off and thought to myself, there is no way Borneo Bull was going to accept this as the cartoon was too focused. But Cuboiart tried and there you are. It got printed.

Thanks Cuboiart!!!

Brunei Data 2009

How many of us realised that the population of Brunei in 2008 was around 398,000 just 2,000 short of the 400,000 population? 276,600 of those people are squeezed in the smallest district of Brunei-Muara and out of that number, 265,100 are Malays (Chinese made up 43,700), 105,300 are below the age of 20.

More than 2,000 of us got married the year before with about 1,900 in front of a Jurunikah. We gave birth to more than 6,000 babies last year but more than 1,100 Bruneians also died last year.

Our unemployment rate last year was a reasonable 3.7%. Our GDP last year was more than $19,000 billion thus making each one of us having a per capita GDP of $49,800. That sounds large, doesn't it? But our growth rate last year was a mere 0.4% and our population grows by around 2.1% - this will mean our per capita GDP will become smaller in the future.

There are 110,000 of our young ones in school last year from kindergarten to universities taught by more than 9,300 teachers and lecturers.

Our pe…

Riot at Bangkok

This AP photograph showing situation at Bangkok Airport is quite scary. More than 4,000 passengers are now stranded there. This new airport handled more than 700 flights a year and last year handled around 40 million passengers! It is the world's 18th busiest airport. My family was supposed to have gone to Bangkok next Monday to visit our niece who is working there at the Brunei Embassy. Since this news came out, we were advised not to go to Bangkok until situation there has improved.

Our Ministry's DPS and the head honcho of PWD plus a few engineers are attending an Engineering Conference in Bangkok at the moment. They were supposed to return back to Brunei this Sunday. He sent me an sms yesterday about the situation and are now finding alternative means of returning home. Our own Royal Brunei Airlines flight to Bangkok was cancelled yesterday. I think the other airports in Thailand are opened, so it may mean a few hours drive away from Bangkok, then only will the visitors may…

Long Life Education

Last night my better half and I were at our son's annual school concert as well as the graduation ceremony for the Primary 6 of his school. I saw many of these parents with fancy cameras armed with fantastic distance zoom lense or the latest video cameras, all of them no doubt very happy that their primary school children will now be entering into secondary school. Indeed Yayasan as a school has something to be proud too. More than half of their Primary 6 cohort scored 5As in their PSR.

No doubt come 2011 (umur panjang), I would love to have my little one in that half too. But then should he not make it, it is not the end of the world. I know a few parents who are not happy because their little one did not make it. I would like to tell them this tale. I remembered one relative a few years ago invited us for a doa kesyukuran and we asked what the occasion was for. She said .. anakku pass .. Not everyone are straight A students but to remember that passing too is an achievement certa…